12 Types of Zinc Supplementation and Absorption 2022
Zinc is a powerful immune nutrient known for its benefits for providing immune health support and inflammation reduction as well as for improving cold and respiratory symptoms, wound healing, acne reduction, and lowering the risk of age-related diseases. Research on atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus suggests that zinc deficiency may contribute to low-grade systemic inflammation.
Types of Zinc
- zinc acetate
- zinc angstrom
- zinc carbonate
- zinc carnosine
- zinc chelate
- zinc chloride
- zinc citrate
- zinc glycinate
- zinc gluconate
- zinc lactate
- zinc l-aspartate / zinc aspartate
- zinc methionine & monomethionine
- zinc orotate
- zinc oxide
- zinc picolinate
- zinc sulfate
1. Chelated Zinc
In other words, each molecule packs more concentrations of zinc via a process of attaching the mineral to something else, such as an amino acid. The belief is that this helps the body better absorb the mineral.
2. Zinc CitrateThis type of zinc is made when zinc is chelated with citric acid. A study found that when given as a supplement without food, zinc citrate absorption was comparable with that of zinc gluconate, and higher than zinc oxide.
However, due to the presence of zinc, this may have a metallic taste. However, taking a small amount of beverage after taking the tablet can avoid this unusual taste. Moreover, this treatment may irritate the digestive tract, resulting in an upset stomach. Another important side effect is, we may get flu-like symptoms including fever, sore throat, chills, etc.
3. Zinc GluconateThis is the most common over-the-counter zinc supplement that’s found in your local drug or health food store. It’s made when zinc is chelated with gluconic acid is often found in oral supplements, nasal zinc sprays or lozenges. A meta-analysis indicates that zinc gluconate lozenges were able to reduce cold duration 28 percent.
More importantly, this compound is used to treat a common cold. We can use it in lozenges to treat the cold symptoms. When considering the side effects of this compound, anosmia (loss of smell) is a reported side effect. However, this compound is relatively safe than other zinc supplements.
4. Zinc PicolinateThis chelated form of zinc salt is made with picolinic acid and is popular for oral use to reverse zinc deficiency. One study comparing the absorption of zinc picolinate, zinc citrate and zinc gluconate shows that there’s no significant change in any of these forms, but zinc picolinate did improve zinc absorption in humans.
5. Zinc CarnosineZinc Carnosine is a dipeptide of the amino acids beta-alanine and histidine. A prescription medicine in Japan used to heal ulcers at 75 mg twice daily, this type of zinc is said to be helpful for leaky gut and healing stomach issues. It has a reputation for being better than antibiotics at healing h. pylori, the bacteria said to be responsible for stomach ulcers.
Zinc carnosine can be an amazing piece of any gut repair program & it was fun to learn that it does much more too.
While Zinc may indirectly help HSP expression through the promotion of mucosal health (a healthy home for flora to bind and grow), zinc carnosine is also an antioxidant and may support HSP expression directly.
Zinc nor L-carnosine have not been shown to support HSP expression by themselves, but the combined chelate form of zinc carnosine does support HSP activity for reasons that are still unclear.
6. Zinc OrotateZinc orotate is zinc that has been chelated to orotic acid. The human body’s cellular membranes readily absorb this type of zinc. Research from Dr. Hans Nieper has found that orotate forms of zinc were more neutrally charged, as compared to other types of zinc. This allowed them to pass through the membranes of cells easily, leading to higher tissue concentrations of zinc. Zinc orotates contain many antioxidant properties that can protect your health while offering your cells the most readily-absorbable form of zinc on the market today.
7. Zinc AcetateZinc Acetate is made from zinc nitrate and acetic anhydride. Zinc acetate is another chemically-altered form of zinc and considered to be more absorbable than gluconate. This form of zinc, also known as zinc salt dihydrate and zinc diacetate, is created by adding acetic acid to zinc carbonate or zinc metal. This form may aid in reducing the duration of the common cold (PubMed), as well as offer relief for Wilson's disease, a genetic disorder whereby the body stores toxic levels of copper.
8. Zinc OxideThis inorganic compound of zinc is most commonly used in topical ointments for addressing minor skin conditions such as burns and irritation and also commonly used for sunscreens. It is also a common ingredient in sunscreens. This type is a non-chelated, inorganic form of zinc.
9. Zinc SulfateWater-soluble and non-chelated, this is an inorganic form of zinc, and the results are mixed on the body absorption and metabolism. Inorganic zinc is not as effective or useable by your body as chelated zinc sources.
10. Zinc Angstrom
11. Zinc Carbonate
12. Zinc Methionine & Monomethionine
What is the Difference Between Zinc Citrate, Zinc Picolinate, Zinc Glycinate and Zinc Gluconate?
Another difference between zinc gluconate and picolinate is that zinc gluconate, along with zinc acetate, has antiviral properties. This makes it a good form for making lozenges and nasal gels that don't contribute to the amount of iron digested and absorbed by the body, but it can fight viruses infecting the nose and throat.
The Mayo Clinic explains that zinc-based lozenges and syrups can be effective if they are used within the first 24 hours of the sign of symptoms. However, be careful — use of intranasal zinc has been linked with the loss of smell.
Although different forms of zinc have different amounts of elemental zinc that can be used by the body, the National Institutes of Health explains that there is not enough research indicating whether there are any superior forms in terms of absorption, bioavailability or tolerability.
Based on the zinc measurements in their hair, urine, erythrocyte and serum both before and after, zinc picolinate was the only form to raise zinc levels, at least in the hair, urine and erythrocyte.
Zinc Types and Elemental Zinc Amount: How much elemental Zinc is in the different zinc compounds
- Zinc citrate is approximately 34% zinc by weight. For a dose of 50mg elemental zinc, take 146 mg zinc citrate. (Examine)
- Zinc sulfate consists 23% of elemental zinc; thus, 220 mg of zinc sulfate contains 50 mg of elemental zinc (NIH).
- Zinc gluconate is approximately 13% zinc by weight. For a dose of 50mg elemental zinc, take 385 mg zinc gluconate. (Examine)
- Zinc monomethionine is approximately 21% zinc by weight. For a dose of 50mg elemental zinc, take 238 mg zinc monomethionine. (Examine)
- Zinc picolinate (20% of elemental zinc) (Metabolics)
- Zinc ascorbate (15%) (Metabolics)
- Zinc chloride (48%) (Metabolics)
- Zinc carbonate (52%) (Metabolics)
- Zinc bisglycinate (25%) (Metabolics)
- Zinc oxide (80%) (FamilyPractice). Although the percentage of elemental zinc is high, do take note that zinc oxide is one of the least bioavailable form.
- Zinc carnosine: The typical clinical oral dose is 150 mg/day, containing 34 mg zinc and 116 mg L-carnosine.
What is Chelated Zinc Supplement?Chelated zinc is a zinc supplement that’s easily absorbed by your body.
Because it’s difficult for your body to efficiently absorb zinc on its own, zinc is often attached to a chelating agent in supplements. A chelating agent is a substance that bonds with zinc to create a more absorbable end product.
Types of Chelated ZincChelated zinc is mainly made using one of the following compounds: amino acids or organic acids.
- aspartic acid: used to make zinc aspartate
- methionine: used to make zinc methionine
- monomethionine: used to make zinc monomethionine
- acetic acid: used to make zinc acetate
- citric acid: used to make zinc citrate
- gluconic acid: used to make zinc gluconate
- orotic acid: used to make zinc orotate
- picolinic acid: used to make zinc picolinate
Does Your Body Store Zinc?Your body has no mechanism for storing zinc, so whatever isn't used is expelled from the body, and you'll need a steady dietary supply to keep your body functioning well.
Best Form of Zinc to Take?
- Zinc gluconate, one of the most popular forms of over-the-counter supplements. It is made by fermenting glucose, so it has a long shelf life.
- Zinc acetate is the best zinc supplement to treat the common cold. Findings of a study published in Open Forum Infectious Diseases in 2017 recommended using acetate lozenges within 24 hours of the onset of a cold for a three-fold increase in the rate of recovery.
- Zinc orotate, made by binding zinc to orotic acid. It is the most readily absorbed zinc supplement on the market, according to Global Healing.
Toxicity and PrecautionsAccording to the National Institutes of Health, the upper tolerable daily limit for adults is 40 milligrams of zinc. Intake of zinc above the recommended upper level could result from a combination of dietary supplements, multivitamins, food and food additives, ingestion of zinc-containing medications or household products.
Best Zinc Supplement 2022: Online Shopping Guide
While many of the zinc supplements may be available in your local stores, it may be more convenient or affordable to shop for them online on Amazon (US):