Top 10 Repurposed Drugs and Metabolic Interventions to Control Cancer: Evidence Based (2024)

This is a review of the published literature showing options for natural strategies and repurposed drugs that can be used in cancer prevention and treatment. It is not intended as a stand-alone guide to treating cancer. Nothing in this document should be taken as a basis to initiate treatment without guidance or avoid any treatment prescribed by your treating physician. This information is offered as a basis to assist mutual decision-making. Cancer care should always be supervised by a healthcare provider. Patients with cancer should ALWAYS consult with their regular oncologist as well as an integrative provider/oncologist, in addition to their primary care provider.

Related: Top 10 Cancer Fighting Supplements

Many of us were first exposed to the idea of using prescription drug cocktails to treat cancer by Ben Williams. Mr. Williams was diagnosed with glioblastoma in March 1995. He availed himself of a drug and supplement protocol that proved to be effective. He chronicled these treatment choices first on a website and in his 2002 book, Surviving Terminal Cancer: Clinical Trials, Drug Cocktails, and Other Treatments Your Oncologist Won’t Tell You About. The protocol he followed stood out not just because of the many nutritional supplements but also because he took multiple off-label drugs. Williams took a range of drugs including Accutane, Actos, and Celebrex that evidence suggested might have an additive or synergistic effect against glioblastoma. 

Related: Cancer Metabolism as a Therapeutic Target and Review of Interventions (Nutrients 2023)

Top 10 Alternatives and Metabolic Interventions to Control Cancer

The Repurposing Drugs in Oncology (ReDO) project has cataloged 268 approved drugs with anticancer effects. It would be impossible to review all the drugs in ReDo’s database in this article; rather, we have focused on, curated and evaluated the drugs or natural compounds that appear to have the greatest clinical utility. These repurposed drugs are listed in priority according to the strength of the supporting clinical and mechanistic evidence. 

SUMMARY OF TOP METABOLIC INTERVENTIONS TO CONTROL CANCER 

List based on the quality of evidence. 
  1. Low-carbohydrate Diet, keto diet, Intermittent Fasting and Cancer
  2. Vitamin D3 and Cancer
  3. Turmeric (Curcumin)
  4. Omega-3 Fatty Acids
  5. Mebendazole / Fenbendazole / Albendazole and Cancer
  6. Ivermectin and Cancer
  7. Vitamin C and E
  8. Metformin
  9. Melatonin
  10. Green Tea (EGCG)

1. Low-carbohydrate Diet, Keto Diet, Intermittent Fasting and Cancer

A carbohydrate-restricted diet (less than 25 g of carbs per day) that is high in saturated fat and Omega-3 fatty acids (ketogenic diet) is suggested. Avoid all processed food (see the FLCCC Guide to Fasting and Healthy Eating for more detailed guidance). Contrary to current dogma, saturated fatty acids are “healthy,” but you should avoid processed Omega-6 vegetable oils (see below). Avoid foods that are high on the glycemic index and follow the “hacks” to flatten the blood glucose curve (see below).


The saturated fat-cholesterol hoax

The Cholesterol-Saturated fatty acid hoax began to proliferate in the 1960s. Dr. Ancel Keys popularized the notion that saturated fats and high cholesterol were the primary causes of atherosclerotic heart disease — the so-called Diet-Heart Hypothesis. This concept has been vigorously studied, including in many randomized controlled trials, and has been convincingly proven to be false (BMJ 2016). Indeed, replacing saturated fats with a diet high in vegetable oils (linoleic acid) was associated with higher rates of death, cardiovascular and coronary heart disease as well as a significantly increased risk of cancer (BMJ 2013).

Healthy and unhealthy oils 

Avoid seed oils high in linoleic acid. Linoleic acid is an Omega-6 fatty acid that our bodies require in small amounts. Unfortunately, many people eat up to 10 times the desired amount of linoleic acid, because of excess consumption of foods made with seed oils. Too much linoleic acid is associated with inflammation, obesity, heart disease, and other unfavorable conditions. Therefore, avoid:

• Soybean oil 
• Corn oil 
• Cottonseed oil 
• Sunflower oil 
• Sesame oil 
• Grapeseed oil 
• Safflower oil 
• Margarine 
• Rice bran oil 

Instead, opt for healthy oils and fats such as the ones listed below. Use only high-quality products and check production and expiration dates. 

• Olive oil (oleic acid, Omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acids); never heat olive oil to the point where it produces smoke. 
• Avocado oil (oleic acid, Omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acids) 
• Coconut oil (medium chain fatty acid) 
• Flaxseed oil (alpha-linolenic acid, ALA Omega-3) 
• Walnut and Pecan oils; should be refrigerated to avoid spoilage 
• Butter (saturated fat) 

Low-Carb and Fasting Are Ill-Advised

As noted by Dr Peter Attia, weeklong fasting significantly deteriorates thyroid function, and that can be explained by the lack of nutrients during a fast. While he does not address this, the same applies to low-carb eating and time-restricted eating (TRE). All three of these strategies will activate your adrenals, trigger cortisol release and down-regulate your thyroid function and metabolism. 

So, while low-carb and various fasting regimens can be helpful in the short term to address extreme obesity, I now believe there are safer, albeit slower, ways to address that. As explained in "Important Information About Low Carb, Cortisol and Glucose", elevated cortisol is highly problematic, as it breaks down your lean muscle, bones and brain to make amino acids that your liver then converts to glucose. It also promotes inflammation and is a primary driver of aging. 

If cortisol is chronically elevated, you will likely die prematurely, as it is highly catabolic, meaning it will break down your body tissues. Cortisol is released when your body doesn’t have enough glucose available, so it’s important to eat enough healthy carbs and not deprive your body of glucose for extended periods.

Cautions and Concerns: Things to Consider Before Fasting

Fasting can have certain side effects, including mood swings and, notably, hunger. In today’s culture, where snacking and constant indulgence in food are common, fasting can be seen as equivalent to starvation.

Dr. Jason Fung, a nephrologist and fasting expert, however, would argue that fasting is a purposeful way of managing one’s day by allocating specific times for eating.

The benefits of fasting can vary among individuals, and the preferred type of fasting can also differ. Intermittent fasting is generally safe, but not everyone responds well to prolonged fasting.

During prolonged fasts, the body primarily breaks down fat for energy rather than muscle. However, the extent to which fat or muscle is targeted can vary based on an individual’s body composition. Those who have more fat to lose may lose more fat and less muscle, while those with higher muscle mass may experience a greater breakdown of protein stores.

Studies have shown that lean muscle mass loss occurs within the first day of prolonged fasting, regardless of an individual’s fat and muscle proportions. Therefore, individuals with significant muscle mass may experience more muscle loss and less fat loss during prolonged fasting.

There are different approaches to incorporating fasting into one’s lifestyle, such as intermittent fasting or longer fasting periods every few months. Social norms, like having dinner together, can discourage extended fasting, so it’s important to choose a fasting style that suits one’s lifestyle and preferences.

However it should be noted that intermittent fasting is not recommended for:
  • People younger than the age of 18, as it can prevent growth. 
  • Pregnant and breastfeeding women are also not recommended to fast intermittently. 
  • Older people are notorious for getting frail very quickly if they skip even one meal. They don’t eat very often, but they need their meal. If you don’t give it to them, they can very quickly decline. 
  • Extended fasting is also not a healthy long term strategy as it increases your stress hormones and worsens mitochondrial function.
  • People with diabetes and kidney disease are also recommended to check with their primary care physicians before considering intermittent fasting.
  • Those taking hypoglycemic or antihypertensive medication are particularly at risk, as they may end up overdosing. If you're on medication, you need to work with your doctor to ensure safety, as some medications need to be taken with food and/or can become toxic when your body chemistry normalizes. 

2. Vitamin D3 and Cancer

Vitamin D can absorb calcium and help the immune, muscle, and nervous systems function properly. There are more than 11,000 search results on vitamin D and cancer on PubMed

A 2023 systematic review and meta-analysis of 14 RCTs (randomized controlled trials), published in Ageing Research Reviews (Kuznia 2023) found vitamin D3 supplementation reduced cancer mortality by 6%. This wasn’t considered statistically significant, but when only studies involving daily vitamin D intake were analyzed, cancer mortality dropped by a significant 12%.

The first randomized-controlled trial (DO-HEALTH) trial to investigate the combination of three complementary treatments for the prevention of cancer and suggest that the combination of daily vitamin D3, supplemental marine omega-3s, and a simple home exercise program may be effective in the prevention of invasive cancer among generally healthy and active adults aged 70 and older.

Findings from a 3 year Randomized Controlled Trial with more than 2,000 participants observed a 61% reduction in the risk of invasive cancer among patients who completed a home exercise program and took vitamin D3 and omega-3 fatty acids daily.

These results, from the DO-HEALTH trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01745263), were published in Frontiers in Aging 2022.

A Secondary Analysis of the VITAL Randomized Clinical Trial studied the effect of Vitamin D3 Supplements on Development of Advanced Cancer. The Harvard research, published in the JAMA Network Open medical journal (2020), overturns the initial findings of a study of 25,000 people published in 2018.

Initially researchers believed there was no benefit from taking vitamin D, as they detected no reduced incidence of cancer diagnoses overall. But they were puzzled because cancer deaths went down among those taking the supplements. Meaning, there was no benefit in terms of prevention of cancer but a reduction in cancer deaths was observed.

A secondary analysis, found this anomaly can be explained by the fact that vitamin D seems to stop metastatic cancers - those aggressive types which spread to other parts of the body. That said, when stratified by BMI (body mass index), there was no significant reduction for the vitamin D arm in incident metastatic or fatal cancer among those with overweight or obesity (BMI 25-<30).

The cancers for which the most human data are available are colorectal, breast, prostate, and pancreatic cancer. Numerous epidemiologic studies have shown that higher intake or blood levels of vitamin D are associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer (R). In contrast, the Women’s Health Initiative randomized trial found that healthy women who took vitamin D and calcium supplements for an average of 7 years did not have a reduced incidence of colorectal cancer (NEJM 2006). Some scientists have pointed out that the relatively low level of vitamin D supplementation (10 μg, or 400 IU, once a day), the ability of participants to take additional vitamin D on their own, and the short duration of participant follow-up in this trial might explain why no reduction in colorectal cancer risk was found. 

According to BreastCancer.orgresearch suggestsTrusted Source that certain cancers such as breast cancer, can have a higher risk of occurring when the body has low levels of vitamin D. 

Studies also show a link between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer (Sizar, 2020).

In 2016, a landmark study published in PLOS ONE found that women over 55 with blood concentrations of vitamin D higher than 40 ng/ml, had a 67% lower risk of cancer compared women with levels lower than 20 ng/ml.

Many experts now recommend 800 to 1,000 IU a day, a goal that's nearly impossible to attain without taking a supplement. Although protection is far from proven, evidence suggests that vitamin D may help reduce the risk of prostate cancer, colon cancer, and other malignancies. 

Types of cancers that Vitamin D may be beneficial for 

Vitamin D supplementation is likely beneficial in most cancers, but particularly in patients with breast, colorectal, gastric, esophagus, lung, and prostate cancer as well as those with lymphomas and melanoma. 

Although the role of vitamin D in cancer prevention remains an area of research interest and debate, avoiding deficient levels is recommended. (American Cancer Society 2020)

Vitamin D can also be absorbed through sunlight, or with the following diet: 
  • fatty fish 
  • egg yolks 
  • fortified milk
Make sure to take 500 mg to 1000 mg of magnesium and 150 mcg of vitamin K2, (not K1) which are important cofactors for optimizing vitamin D function. And, remember the only way you know what your vitamin D level is, is to test it. Vitamin D level should be in a therapeutic range of 50 to 70 ng/ml for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Most people are shocked how low their level is when they finally get around to testing it.


3. Turmeric (Curcumin) and Cancer

There are more than 7,000 search results on curcumin and cancer on PubMed and more than 50 clinical trials with curcumin, most of which are still ongoing. The spice turmeric can be extremely helpful when it comes to fighting cancer. 

Studies show that the curcumin in turmeric may kill cancer cells and slow tumor growth. This preclinical research has taken curcumin from the lab to the clinic. 

The benefits of curcumin may include: 
  • blocking cancer cells from multiplying
  • killing colon, breast, prostate, and melanoma cancer cells
  • slowing tumor growth
Most of the studies published on PubMed are non-human (pre-clinical) studies. 

review paper published in 2022, analysed 21 human studies. Sixteen out of 21 clinical trials were associated with the effectiveness of curcumin or turmeric on various types of cancer, and the other five clinical trials were related to the evaluation of the efficacy of curcumin or turmeric in relieving the side effects of cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The emerging data from the clinical trials confirm that curcumin has the potential for cancer prevention and intervention. 

Significantly, the active elements in curcumin attack cancer while leaving healthy cells untouched. For the purpose of disease intervention, while turmeric is available in powdered form, it contains very little of the active compounds in curcumin, or only about a 3% curcumin concentration.

Because it's not easily absorbed through your gastrointestinal tract, it's more effective to use a high-quality bioavailable curcumin extract, according to a 2013 study. A typical anticancer dose is just under 1 teaspoon of curcumin extract three or four times daily.

Both curcuminoids and related turmeric products have been sanctioned by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as safe.

Turmeric and black pepper each have health benefits, due to the compounds curcumin and piperine. As piperine enhances curcumin absorption in the body by up to 2,000%, combining the spices magnifies their effects. (Healthline)
 

4. Omega-3 Fatty Acids 

PubMed has indexed more than 2,900 research studies on Omega-3 and cancer. Most people use fish oil supplements to enhance the amount of omega-3’s in their diet. 

The first randomized-controlled trial to investigate the combination of three complementary treatments for the prevention of cancer and suggest that the combination of daily vitamin D3, supplemental marine omega-3s, and a simple home exercise program may be effective in the prevention of invasive cancer among generally healthy and active adults aged 70 and older.

Findings from a 3 year Randomized Controlled Trial with more than 2,000 participants observed a 61% reduction in the risk of invasive cancer among patients who completed a home exercise program and took vitamin D3 and omega-3 fatty acids daily.

These results, from the DO-HEALTH trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01745263), were published in Frontiers in Aging 2022.

Findings from a study performed in mice, research from Harvard Medical School’s Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston demonstrated omega-3 fat could reduce tumor growth by 67% (R).

The research was presented April 4, 2022 at the annual Experimental Biology meeting in Philadelphia. The animal model showed that omega-3 fatty acids helped promote the cancer-fighting activities of immunotherapy and anti-inflammatory therapy.

Many governments recommend eating omega-3 containing fatty fish, two times per week. But that is often not enough. Ideally, people would need to eat fatty fish four times per week, while also supplementing with omega-3 fatty acids, at least 1,000 mg of pure omega-3 (DHA and EPA) per day.

However, fish oil was shown in one study on mice (2015)Trusted Source to possibly reduce the effectiveness of chemotherapy, and for that reason ground flax seed is a worthy alternative.

Flax seed is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which may reduce the risk of certain cancers. When supplementing, try to avoid flaxseed oil because it lacks the nutrients of ground flax seed. Ground flax seed can be purchased online or found in many larger grocery store chains. Simply sprinkle some ground flax seed on your food and enjoy.

Make sure you buy high-quality omega-3 fatty acid supplements, meaning that the omega-3 fatty acids are pure and have not oxidized much (having low “TOTOX” value).

TOTOX value stands for total oxidation value. The omega 3 fatty acids EPA and DHA from fish oil are highly sensitive to oxidation. This means that they are rapidly affected by contact with oxygen. Oxidised fatty acids are not beneficial to our health. For this reason, a good fish oil supplement has a low TOTOX value. The maximum TOTOX value is set at 26 by the Global Organization for EPA and DHA omega-3.

5. Vitamin C and E

PubMed has indexed more than 3,000 research studies on vitamin C and cancer and more than 5,000 studies on vitamin E and cancer.

Prevention

2022 - An umbrella review* (Xu 2022) to assess the existing systematic reviews and meta-analyses for the association between vitamin C intake and multiple health outcomes; showed that vitamin C intake was associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD), oesophageal cancer, gastric cancer, cervical cancer and lung cancer with an increment of 50–100 mg per day.

Beneficial associations were also identified for respiratory, neurological, ophthalmologic, musculoskeletal, renal and dental outcomes. A total of 76 meta-analyses (51 papers) of randomised controlled trials and observational studies with 63 unique health outcomes were identified. Harmful associations were found for breast cancer and kidney stones for vitamin C supplement intake. 

*Umbrella review: An umbrella review, or a review of reviews, is a systematic review that only considers other systematic reviews as an eligible study type for inclusion.

2022 - Obese women who took vitamin C and B6 at amounts that exceeded the recommended daily intake levels were associated with a lower risk of breast cancer, according to a five-year long South Korean cohort study. 40,432 women without a history of cancer at baseline were included in this study.

2022 - A meta-analysis to review the association between vitamins and brain cancer showed that intake of vitamin C, β-carotene, and folate can reduce the risk of brain cancer, while high serum α-tocopherol (vitamin E) concentration also has a protective effect on brain cancer.

Treatment

2022 - A systematic review on the effect of vitamins C and E on cancer survival showed improvement of survival and progression rates of cancers by vitamins C and E. However, the authors concluded that more high quality trials with large sample sizes are required to confirm.

Vitamin C is known as an antioxidant, but at high concentrations, vitamin C can kill cancer cells through a pro-oxidant property (Transl Oncol. 2020). This study has also demonstrated that vitamin C treatment with magnesium supplementation provided more effective anticancer therapy than vitamin C treatment alone.


High-dose vitamin C cancer therapy was introduced by Linus Pauling and Ewan Cameron [R]. Clinical demonstration results by Pauling and Cameron showed that intravenous injection of 10 g/day of vitamin C extended the survival time of terminal cancer patients by about 4.2 times. However, results from the Mayo Clinic in 1979 showed that the survival time of vitamin C–treated patients was even shorter than that of the placebo group patients [R]. A significant difference between those two research groups was the route of AA administration: intravenous injection and oral administration, respectively. 

To understand the mechanism of AA's anticancer activity, many research groups have treated colon, prostate, leukemia, lymphoma, brain, and stomach cancer cells and chemically or genetically transformed cancer cells with AA and showed cancer growth inhibition and even cancer cell death through hydrogen peroxide–mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation [R]. In most cases, the pharmacological concentration of vitamin C required for anticancer effects (EC50 value of 1–10 mM) could only be achieved by intravenous administration. Thus, to apply vitamin C as an anticancer therapy, a high intracellular concentration in cancer cells is critically important (R).


6. Mebendazole / Fenbendazole /Albendazole and Cancer

The use of benzimidazoles in cancer is limited to a few case reports and a small case series (Chiang 2021). Mebendazole (MBZ) is a component of the multidrug cocktail used in the METRICS study (Agrawal 2019).  The use of benzimidazoles, and in particular fenbendazole, has achieved much attention as a repurposed drug for cancer due to the reported experience of Joe Tippens. In 2016, Tippens was diagnosed with non-small-cell lung cancer with extensive metastatic disease. At the advice of a veterinarian friend, he took Fenbendazole together with nanocurcumin, and three months after starting these drugs his PET scan was completely clear. He remains alive and disease-free up until the present.

Types of cancers that mebendazole may be beneficial for 

A wide variety of cancers, including NSCLC (non small cell lung cancer), adrenocortical, colorectal, chemo-resistant melanoma, glioblastoma multiforme, colon, leukemia, osteosarcoma/soft tissue sarcoma, acute myeloid sarcoma, breast (ER+ invasive ductal), kidney, and ovarian carcinoma, have been shown to be responsive to benzimidazoles, including MBZ. (Guerini 2019, Meco 2023

Dosing and cautions 

We suggest Mebendazole 100-200 mg/day. The cost of mebendazole in the U.S. skyrocketed once this drug was discovered to have activity against cancer ($555 for a single 100 mg tablet). However, mebendazole is available from international compounding pharmacies (India) at about 27c for a 100 mg tablet. 

Read More: Fenbendazole Cancer Success Stories and Treatment Testimonials: Case Series

7. Ivermectin and Cancer

In a 2021 review paper, the related mechanisms by which ivermectin inhibited the development of different cancers and promoted programmed cell death were discussed. Also reviewed was the prospects for the clinical application of ivermectin as an anticancer drug for cancer therapy.

In another study, published in Nature (2021), Ivermectin stimulates T-cells to invade and destroy tumors and synergizes with immune checkpoint blockade for treatment of breast cancer.

Clinical studies 

While many in vitro studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of ivermectin against multiple cancers, the clinical effectiveness is limited to small case series. (De Castro 2020Ishiguro 2022)

Dosing and cautions 

The optimal dosing strategy with ivermectin is unclear. De Castro et al reported the use of 1mg/kg/day for up to 6 months in three pediatric patients with refractory AML without untoward side effects (De Castro 2020). Ishiguro et al reported the use of ivermectin 12 mg twice weekly. (Ishiguro 2022


8. Metformin

A search on PubMed for “metformin AND cancer” yielded more than 6,000 citations. 

Numerous trials have shown that metformin, routinely used to treat diabetes, also inhibits the development of cancer cells and reduces cancer cell proliferation. Unlike most standard chemotherapy, metformin suppresses cancer stem cells, the root of cancer. (Shi 2017)

Many cancer patients also have type-2 diabetes. Yet few take metformin because treating diabetes has taken a backseat to treating their cancer. We check hemoglobin A1c status on all our cancer patients. The medical standard of care is to prescribe metformin for anyone with a 5.8% or higher A1c. 

Clinical studies 

The results of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Data Survey (2019), which included a community of 12,005 patients taking metformin from 2000 to 2007 and a population of 4,597 patients taking other oral medications, indicated that using metformin reduces the chance of any type of cancer up to 88%.

Meta-analyses have examined the role of metformin in the primary prevention of cancer, where it was found to significantly reduce overall cancer incidence (Gandini 2014). Lega et al (2014) performed a meta-analysis of 21 observational studies, evaluating the outcomes of diabetic patients with cancer who were receiving metformin. In this study, metformin was associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality and cancer-specific mortality; patients with colorectal cancer demonstrated the greatest benefit. 

In a similar analysis performed by Yin et al (2013), metformin improved overall survival in patients with lung, breast, and prostate cancer. 

Coyle et al (2016) performed a meta-analysis of 27 observational studies which investigated the use of metformin as an adjunctive treatment for cancer. The findings of this study suggested that metformin was associated with significant benefit in the early treatment of patients with colorectal and prostate cancer, particularly in those receiving radical radiotherapy. 

Types of cancers that metformin may be beneficial for 

Various malignancies can be prevented with the use of metformin. In general, metformin can: i) lower cancer incidence, ii) lower cancer mortality, iii) improve cancer cell response to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, iv) optimize tumor migration and lower malignancy, v) lower relapse risk, and vi) lessen the harmful effects of androgen derivatives. (Saraei 2019)

Collective findings show that metformin has a broad spectrum of anticancer activity against breast, pancreatic, gastric, colorectal, endometrial, pancreatic prostate, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and bladder cancers. (Buczyńska 2022Stopsack 2016Mei 2014) However, the greatest benefit may be in patients with colorectal and prostate cancer, (Stopsack 2016Mei 2014), particularly when used as an adjunctive therapy.

Dosing and cautions 

A dose of metformin of 1,000 mg twice daily is suggested. Metformin is a remarkably safe drug with very few side effects. The most common adverse effects include abdominal or stomach discomfort, cough, hoarseness, decreased appetite, and diarrhea. Prolonged use is associated with vitamin B12 deficiency; supplementation with a B complex vitamin is therefore suggested. Metformin may cause very low blood glucose when combined with berberine; hence the blood glucose should be very closely monitored in patients taking this combination; if low glucose does occur, we would suggest alternating metformin and berberine (monthly). 

9. Melatonin

PubMed has indexed more than 3,000 research studies on melatonin and cancer.

Melatonin is one of the most important antioxidant molecules. In the human body — aside from having direct antioxidant effects — it also stimulates the synthesis of glutathione and other important antioxidants like superoxide dismutase and catalase.

Many people are not aware that only 5% of your body’s melatonin — which is also a potent anticancer agent — is produced in your pineal gland. The other 95% is produced inside your mitochondria — provided you get sufficient near infrared exposure which is typically from sun on your bare skin. This is why vitamin D is more than likely a biomarker for sun exposure, which is intricately involved in melatonin production. (R)

Melatonin - Treatment

2022 - An umbrella review of meta-analyses based on randomized controlled trials (Pharmacological Research 2022):

"Survival at one year (P < 0.005) significantly increased with cancer patients."

2020 - A case series of 14 advanced cancer patients (Trends in Oncology 2020), treated with high dose (1,000 mg/day) of melatonin; achieved a disease control of 54% of the patients:

"Moreover, this preliminary study may also suggest that high dose melatonin has no toxicity in cancer patients with poor clinical status, as well as in healthy subjects."

10. Green Tea (EGCG)

PubMed has indexed more than 2,000 research studies on EGCG and cancer.

Several epidemiological studies have reported that the consumption of green tea may decrease cancer risk. Studies have also confirmed numerous health benefits of green tea including prevention of cancer (RR) and cardiovascular disease, as well as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiarthritic, antibacterial, and antiviral effects. (RRRR).

Green tea also contains chemicals called polyphenols that have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory properties and anti-angiogenic properties, and the catechins in green tea polyphenols show very strong anti-angiogenic properties.

The Minnesota Green Tea Trial (MGTT. 2015) is the largest and longest double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized intervention study that specifically evaluated the effects of oral GTE (green tea extract) containing defined quantities of EGCG on established biomarkers of breast cancer risk.

They randomized and stratified 1075 healthy postmenopausal women at high risk of breast cancer according to their breast tissue density and catechol-O-methyltransferase genotypes and divided them into two groups: 537 placebo and 538 green tea groups. Green tea group participants took 4 capsules that contained 843 mg EGCG, whereas the placebo group took capsules without green tea extracts.

Researchers measured changes in percent mammographic density, circulating endogenous sex hormones, and proteins of the insulin-like growth factor axis. Their results showed that supplementation with green tea extract could modify and reduce mammographic density (MD) and protect against breast cancer, even though it was only significant in younger women (50–55 years) and had no effect in older women (R), an age-dependent effect similar to those of tamoxifen.

If you have cancer, consider drinking up to 3 cups of green tea per day to experience the benefits. Green tea pills are also available, but may be too concentrated.

Some studies show health benefits in people who drink as little as one cup per day, while other studies deem five or more cups per day to be optimal (SourceSource).

References:

Repurposed Drugs for Cancer (2023 Edition)

THE ROLE OF REPURPOSED DRUGS AND METABOLIC INTERVENTIONS IN TREATING CANCER (FLCCC)


Related: 



What are the Best Cancer Fighting Foods

CAR-T vs CAR-NK - The Cancer Cell Therapy Showdown

10 Alternative Cancer Therapies Worth Considering for an Integrative Treatment Plan (credit: briomedical)

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