35 Best Anti Aging Tips for 2022
According to the CDC, the top ten causes of death are:
- Heart disease: 696,962
- Cancer: 602,350
- COVID-19: 350,831
- Accidents (unintentional injuries): 200,955
- Stroke (cerebrovascular diseases): 160,264
- Chronic lung diseases: 152,657
- Alzheimer’s disease: 134,242
- Diabetes: 102,188
- Influenza and pneumonia: 53,544
- Kidney Disease: 52,547
While aging is inevitable, increasing the human lifespan and slowing the aging process has been a focus of scientific research for decades. If aging is reversible, then maybe heart disease, cancer, diabetes or other chronic disorders are reversible as well.
Methodology: The selection or short-listing of the list below is based on the available scientific evidence retrieved from scientific database such as PubMed and scientific search engine such as Google Scholar. The article will also be updated as and when there is a newly discovered major research publication related to anti-aging.
In this Article
- Diet and Lifestyle
- Healthy Lifestyle
- Mediterranean Diet
- Stress Management
- Caloric Restriction
- Avoiding Linoleic Acid
- Intermittent fasting
- Nutrients and Supplements
- Curcumin (Turmeric)
- Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN)
- EGCG (Green Tea)
- Pu-erh Tea Extract
- NAC (N-Acetyl Cysteine)
- Crocin (Saffron)
- Molecular Hydrogen
- Magnesium Malate
- Micro-Dosed Lithium
- Pterostilbene (blueberries)
- Vitamin C
- Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG)
- Olive Leaf Extract
- Whey Protein
- Hormone Replacement Therapy
- Stem Cell Therapy for Anti-Aging
Diet and Lifestyle
Healthy LifestyleIn this study (Sakaniva 2022), 45,021 people were studied from 1988 to 1990 and the subjects continued to be monitored until 2009. Each healthy lifestyle factor like diet, exercise, smoking, sleep, and BMI (body mass index) was given a point.
Mediterranean DietThe Mediterranean diet is a dietary pattern based on foods and drinks traditionally consumed by people in the region surrounding the Mediterranean Sea (Oldways 2016). The Mediterranean diet has been shown to protect against several age- and inflammation-related conditions including diabetes, atherosclerosis, obesity, cancers, and neurodegenerative diseases. The Mediterranean diet is primarily characterized by inclusion of olive oil, fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, nuts, and seeds; with moderate amounts of fish, poultry, cheese, yogurt, and eggs; limited inclusion of red meat, cured meat products, and foods rich in refined sugars; and low-to-moderate alcohol intake, usually in the form of red wine consumed with meals (Casas 2014; Estruch 2010).
In a 2014 review of 17 clinical trials, greater adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was associated with significantly reduced levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, two important markers of inflammation (Schwingshackl 2014; Coventry 2009; Ershler 2000; US Department of Health and Human Services 2015).
ExerciseRegular moderate-intensity exercise can strengthen resistance to infection and improve immune system function. Single bouts of moderate-intensity exercise have even been used to improve response to vaccines. On the other hand, prolonged, excessive high-intensity exercise (ie, over-training) temporarily suppresses immune function and increases vulnerability to infection (Simpson 2015; Gleeson 2013; Zheng 2015).
Several human studies have indicated that moderate exercise may combat immune senescence (de Araujo 2013; Simpson 2011; Simpson 2010; Spielmann 2011; Woods 2009). In a study in sedentary older adults, participants randomized to 10 months of moderate cardiovascular exercise exhibited improvements in antibody responses to influenza vaccine compared with elderly individuals who only engaged in flexibility and balance exercises (Woods 2009).
In a study in elderly women, two years of regular physical activity increased production of IL-2—an important regulator of immune response that ordinarily decreases with age (Drela 2004). A 2011 study demonstrated that aerobic fitness is associated with reduced accumulation of senescent T cells (Spielmann 2011).
The effects of high levels of physical activity were evaluated in an observational cohort study of 125 adults aged 55 to 79 years who are master cyclists. Compared with 75 age-matched older adults who do not routinely exercise, the cyclists were shown to have more markers of a robust immune system. Older, physically active adults had significantly lower levels of immune senescence markers, including lower Th17 cell polarization and higher proportions of regulatory B cells. Lower levels of Th17 cells, which are T cells that have been shown to suppress the immune system, together with higher levels of regulatory B cells, may help decrease the risk of age-associated inflammatory autoimmune disease. Older adult cyclists also had cytokine signatures that promote thymus health—the key organ in which T cells mature. Furthermore, T-cell levels in the cyclists were comparable with those of much younger adults (aged 20 to 39 years). In contrast, inactive older adults had lower levels of T cells compared with both older adult cyclists and younger adults. Taken together, these results suggest that maintaining physical activity may delay immune senescence (Duggal 2018).
Stress ManagementA June 2022 study supports what immunologists have long suspected: A key stressor to our immune system as we age may be stress itself.
“Our study suggests that social stress may accelerate immune aging,” he said.
Those who study immunity and aging – called immunosenescence – have long known that as people age, many see a decrease in immune protection.
In studies on patients with early-stage breast cancer, stress management interventions have been shown to improve cellular immune function and reverse pro-inflammatory gene expression in circulating immune cells (Antoni 2012; McGregor 2004). Stress management training in patients with rheumatoid arthritis resulted in decreased levels of stress-induced IL-8—an inflammatory cytokine (de Brouwer 2013).
Quality SleepLack of sleep can weaken immune function and increase susceptibility to respiratory infections, including the common cold, and chronic lack of sleep may be associated with an increased risk of death (Prather 2015; Ibarra-Coronado 2015; Wilder-Smith 2013; Aldabal 2011). Sleep deprivation is associated with elevated cortisol levels, as well as higher daytime levels of inflammatory cytokines including IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (Aldabal 2011; Hirotsu 2015). A study in individuals aged 61‒86 found even a single night of partial sleep deprivation induced patterns of gene activation associated with biological aging (Carroll 2016).
The adverse effects of poor sleep include functional changes in regulatory T cells and other cells of the adaptive immune system, as well as reduced numbers of NK cells and T and B cells (Zuppa 2015; Bollinger 2009).
Reduced sleep has been shown to alter the balance between antibody-mediated and cell-mediated immunity (Ganz 2012). In one study, participants allowed regular sleep the night after vaccines had markedly superior long-term antibody responses compared with those who stayed awake that night. Another study showed sleep-deprived individuals had a significantly lower antibody response 10 days after immunization than those who had normal sleep (Lange 2003; Spiegel 2002).
Caloric RestrictionThe goal of caloric restriction is to reduce total caloric intake while maintaining optimal nutrition. This may be best accomplished by eating a diet primarily composed of low-calorie, nutrient-dense foods such as vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts and seeds, and whole grains; limiting intake of animal products; and avoiding calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods (Rizza 2014). Caloric restriction in animals has been shown to prolong lifespan and delay aging, and to confer a more youthful profile of T cells (Ahmed 2009; Fernandes 1997; Michan 2014).
In humans, long-term caloric restriction results in metabolic changes that reduce the risk of a number of age-related diseases including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer (Steven 2015; Rizza 2014; Bales 2013; Lefevre 2009; Meyer 2006; Fontana 2004; Stein 2012). In a clinical study, six months of caloric restriction significantly improved the ability of T cells to reproduce in response to foreign antigens (Ahmed 2009).
Studies in animal models have demonstrated that caloric restriction can improve multiple aspects of immune activity, particularly T-cell function (Jolly 2004; Messaoudi 2006; Nikolich-Zugich 2005). In a study in mice, caloric restriction was shown to maintain youthful function of the thymus gland and reduce immune senescence during aging. Compared with mice fed freely, calorie-restricted mice had greater proliferation and diversity of T cells (Yang 2009).
Avoiding Linoleic Acid
Most clinicians who value nutritional interventions to optimize health understand that vegetable oils, which are loaded with omega-6 PUFA, are something to be avoided. What most fail to appreciate is that even if you eliminate the vegetable oils and avoid them like the plague, you may still be missing the mark.
Chances are you're still getting too much of this dangerous fat from supposedly healthy food sources such as olive oil and chicken (which are fed LA-rich grains). Another common mistake is to simply increase the amount of omega-3 that you eat. Many are now aware that the omega-3 to omega-6 ratio is very important, and should be about equal, but simply increasing omega-3 can be a dangerous strategy.
- Saturated fats, which have a full complement of hydrogen atoms
- Monounsaturated fats, which are missing a single hydrogen atom
- PUFAs, which are missing multiple hydrogen atoms
Over the last century, thanks to fatally flawed research suggesting saturated animal fat caused heart disease, the LA in the human diet has dramatically increased, from about 2 to 3 grams a day 150 years ago, to 30 or 40 grams a day.
On a side note, do not confuse LA with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). While most think CLA and LA are interchangeable, they're not. CLA has many potent health benefits and will not cause the problems that LA does.
Limiting the hours you eat each day may help you consume fewer calories. It may also provide health benefits, including weight loss and improved heart health and blood sugar levels.
There are several forms of intermittent fasting, including a common form called time-restricted eating.
"Adjustment of meal size and frequency have emerged as powerful tools to ameliorate and postpone the onset of disease and delay aging, whereas periods of fasting, with or without energy intake, can have profound health benefits.
The underlying physiological processes involve periodic shifts of metabolic fuel sources, promotion of repair mechanisms, and the optimization of energy utilization for cellular and organismal health …
In general, both prolonged reduction in daily caloric intake and periodic fasting cycles have the power to delay the onset of disease and increase longevity."
Nutrients and Supplements
Curcumin — the main active compound in turmeric — has been shown to possess powerful anti-aging properties, which are attributed to its potent antioxidant potential.
Cellular senescence occurs when cells stop dividing. As you age, senescent cells accumulate, which is believed to accelerate aging and disease progression (Trusted Source, Trusted Source).
Research demonstrates that curcumin activates certain proteins, including sirtuins and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which helps delay cellular senescence and promotes longevity (Trusted Source, Trusted Source).
Plus, curcumin has been shown to combat cellular damage and significantly increase the lifespan of fruit flies, roundworms, and mice. This compound has been shown to postpone age-related disease and alleviate age-related symptoms as well (Trusted Source, Trusted Source).
This may be why turmeric intake has been associated with a reduced risk of age-related mental decline in humans (R).
You can increase your curcumin intake by using turmeric in recipes or taking curcumin supplements.
Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) is a one of the precursors of NAD+. In humans, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) increases levels of NAD+, which is needed for proper DNA repair and to maintain the epigenome. NMN has shown to support a healthy metabolism in humans, and improve muscle strength and performance in the elderly. In animals, NMN slows down various aging processes.
The older we get, the less NAD+ is present in our cells. Various studies show that NMN has beneficial effects on aging diseases and symptoms (R,R,R,R).
For example, long term administration of NMN mitigated age-associated decline in mice: NMN reduced the typical age-associated increase in body weight, improved energy metabolism, improved lipids in the blood and insulin sensitivity and ameliorated eye function (R).
NMN can also improve aging-related decline in fertility (R), improve bone health (R) and vascular health (R,R,R).
EGCG (Green Tea)
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a well-known polyphenol compound concentrated in green tea. It offers impressive health benefits, with research supporting its use to reduce the risk of certain cancers, as well as other health conditions like heart disease (Trusted Source, Trusted Source, Trusted Source).
Among EGCG’s diverse array of potential health-promoting properties is its ability to promote longevity and protect against age-related disease development.
EGCG may slow aging by restoring mitochondrial function in cells and acting on pathways involved in aging, including the AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway (AMPK).
It also induces autophagy, the process by which your body removes damaged cellular material (Trusted Source).
Green tea intake has been associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality, diabetes, stroke, and heart-disease-related death. Plus, animal studies have shown that it can protect against skin aging and wrinkles caused by ultraviolet (UV) light (Trusted Source, Trusted Source, Trusted Source).
EGCG can be consumed by drinking green tea or taking concentrated supplements.
Pu-erh tea, made from select leaves of Camellia sinensis, has a long history of use in ancient Chinese medicine for anti-aging and preventing infections (Lv 2014; Zhang 2012; Chu 2011). Pu-erh tea is rich in polyphenols and other bioactive molecules, including theabrownins, a unique group of compounds developed during the post-fermentation process (Lee 2013). Laboratory, animal, and clinical studies have demonstrated the ability of Pu-erh tea extract to help improve multiple features of immune senescence.
In senescence-accelerated mice (a model for aging), supplementation with Pu-erh tea extract markedly increased fractions of naïve T cells, cytotoxic T cells, and NK cells. In addition, elevated levels of the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 fell by 43%. Based on these results, the authors concluded that long-term consumption of Pu-erh tea may increase resistance to infection and cancer in aging individuals (Zhang 2012).
In a randomized controlled trial in 90 individuals with increased susceptibility to chronic low-level inflammation due to metabolic syndrome, Pu-erh tea extract supplementation plus diet and lifestyle advice was compared with diet and lifestyle advice alone. In the pu-erh tea extract group, levels of the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and IL-6 significantly decreased, while levels of IL-10, an anti-inflammatory molecule, increased; there were no significant changes in levels of these markers in the group receiving only diet and lifestyle advice (Chu 2011; Moore 2001).
In a laboratory study, Pu-erh tea inhibited proliferation and induced programmed cell death (apoptosis) in cancer cells. In an animal component of this study, mice treated with Pu-erh tea had reduced tumor volumes and fewer lymph node metastases than untreated mice. In addition, levels of IL-6, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were lower in Pu-erh-treated mice than in control mice. In this study, higher doses of pu-erh tea produced greater anti-cancer effects (Zhao 2014).
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an antioxidant that your body produces. It plays essential roles in energy production and protects against cellular damage (Trusted Source).
Research suggests that levels of CoQ10 decline as you age, and supplementing with it has been shown to improve certain aspects of health in older individuals.
For example, a study in 443 older adults demonstrated that supplementing with CoQ10 and selenium over 4 years improved their overall quality of life, reduced hospital visits, and slowed the deterioration of physical and mental performance (Trusted Source).
CoQ10 supplements help reduce oxidative stress, a condition characterized by an accumulation of free radicals and other reactive molecules that accelerates the aging process and onset of age-related disease (Trusted Source, Trusted Source).
Though CoQ10 shows promise as an anti-aging supplement, more evidence is needed before it can be recommended as a natural way to delay aging.
Be sure to consult a trusted healthcare professional before giving it a try.
Collagen is promoted as a fountain of youth for its potential to reduce the appearance of skin aging.
It’s an integral component of your skin that helps maintain skin structure. As you age, collagen production slows, leading to collagen loss in the skin that accelerates signs of aging like wrinkles.
Some research suggests that supplementing with collagen may reduce signs of aging, including wrinkles and dry skin.
For example, a 2019 study in 72 women demonstrated that taking a supplement that contained 2.5 grams of collagen — along with several other ingredients, including biotin — per day for 12 weeks significantly improved skin hydration, roughness, and elasticity (Trusted Source).
Another study in 114 women found that treatment with 2.5 grams of collagen peptides for 8 weeks significantly reduced eye wrinkles and increased collagen levels in the skin (Trusted Source).
Though these results are promising, keep in mind that many collagen studies are funded by companies that manufacture collagen products, which may influence study results.
Many types of collagen supplements are on the market, including powders and capsules.
Zinc is an essential trace mineral that is critical to healthy immune function. Zinc deficiency is common in older individuals, and causes changes in immune function that resemble those seen in immune senescence (Cabrera 2015; Maywald 2015). Immunological alterations associated with zinc deficiency include diminished thymus function, decreased antibody response to vaccines, and impaired function of phagocytic and NK cells (Haase 2009; Cabrera 2015).
In a study in healthy older volunteers, daily intake of 45 mg zinc for one year resulted in a 67% reduction versus placebo in incidence of infections. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, an inflammatory cytokine, were also greatly reduced in those taking zinc (Prasad 2007). In a study of older individuals in nursing homes, residents with normal zinc levels had a significantly lower incidence of pneumonia compared with zinc-deficient individuals. Zinc-replete individuals also had shorter pneumonia duration and 50% lower usage of antibiotics, as well as lower all-cause mortality (Meydani 2007). A controlled clinical trial in aged individuals showed supplementation with 45 mg zinc per day for six months decreased plasma markers of inflammation, including IL-6 and C-reactive protein (Bao 2010).
Combining zinc with other important vitamins and minerals may also aid immune function. In a randomized controlled trial that enrolled 42 subjects between 55 and 75 years of age, those who took a multivitamin/mineral supplement containing 10 mg zinc and 1,000 mg vitamin C, along with other vitamins and minerals, for 12 weeks experienced fewer self-reported sick days and less severe symptoms than those who took placebo. The number of sick days decreased by nearly 65% with supplement use (Fantacone 2020).
NAC (N-Acetyl Cysteine)
Cysteine is a semi-essential amino acid. It’s considered semi-essential because your body can produce it from other amino acids, namely methionine and serine. It becomes essential only when the dietary intake of methionine and serine is low.
Cysteine is found in most high-protein foods, such as chicken, turkey, yogurt, cheese, eggs, sunflower seeds and legumes.
N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a supplement form of cysteine.
Consuming adequate cysteine and NAC is important for a variety of health reasons — including replenishing the most powerful antioxidant in your body, glutathione. These amino acids also help with chronic respiratory conditions, fertility and brain health.
NAC is valued primarily for its role in antioxidant production. Along with two other amino acids — glutamine and glycine — NAC is needed to make and replenish glutathione.
Glutathione is one of the body’s most important antioxidants, which helps neutralize free radicals that can damage cells and tissues in your body.
It’s essential for immune health and fighting cellular damage. Some researchers believe it may even contribute to longevity (Trusted Source).
Its antioxidant properties are also important for combatting numerous other ailments caused by oxidative stress, such as heart disease, infertility and some psychiatric conditions (Trusted Source).
When inhaled, it can cause swelling in the mouth, runny nose, drowsiness and chest tightness.
People with bleeding disorders or taking blood thinning medications should not take NAC, as it may slow blood clotting (Trusted Source).
NAC has an unpleasant smell that makes it hard to consume. If you choose to take it, consult with your doctor first.
Crocin is a yellow carotenoid pigment in saffron, a popular, pricey spice that’s commonly used in Indian and Spanish cuisine.
Saffron is the most expensive spice in the world — with 1 pound (450 grams) costing between 500 and 5,000 U.S. dollars. Saffron contains an impressive variety of plant compounds that act as antioxidants — molecules that protect your cells against free radicals and oxidative stress.
Human and animal studies have shown that crocin offers many health benefits, including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-anxiety, and antidiabetic effects (Trusted Source).
Aside from the properties listed above, crocin has been researched for its potential to act as an anti-aging compound and protect against age-related mental decline (Trusted Source).
Test-tube and rodent studies have demonstrated that crocin helps prevent age-related nerve damage by inhibiting the production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are compounds that contribute to the aging process (Trusted Source, Trusted Source).
Crocin has also been shown to help prevent aging in human skin cells by reducing inflammation and protecting against UV-light-induced cellular damage (Trusted Source, Trusted Source).
Given that saffron is the most expensive spice in the world, a more cost-effective way to boost your crocin intake is by taking a concentrated saffron supplement.
Interestingly, garlic has also been demonstrated to suppress the overactive immune response associated with allergic reactions. Data from experimental studies indicate aged garlic extract may reduce histamine release and modify the function of immune cells involved in allergic reactions (Kyo 2001).
According to a review paper published in Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity (Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2022):
Through its antioxidative effect, hydrogen maintains genomic stability, mitigates cellular senescence, and takes part in histone modification, telomere maintenance, and proteostasis. In addition, hydrogen may prevent inflammation and regulate the nutrient-sensing mTOR system, autophagy, apoptosis, and mitochondria, which are all factors related to ageing. Hydrogen can also be used for prevention and treatment of various ageing-related diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, diabetes, and cancer.
It was already discovered that hydrogen can prolong the life of stem cells by reducing oxidative stress [Ref].
A hydrogen-rich environment reduced both oxidative stress and aging in cells. Some scientists think
that drinking hydrogen water could increase longevity in humans (Circ J. 2016).
Theanine is one of the substances responsible for the healthy effects of green tea. Theanine can extend lifespan in different organisms. It can upregulate aging-protective proteins, like FOXO1 and antioxidative enzymes and can help the body to manage crosslinks.
L-citrulline is a naturally occurring amino acid found in some foods like watermelons and is also produced naturally by the body. Citrulline can promote heart health by widening your blood vessels. It can also improve your exercise performance and may play a role in muscle building (Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2017). After citrulline is consumed, some is converted to another amino acid called arginine. Arginine is converted into a molecule called nitric oxide, which causes vasodilation of blood vessels by relaxing the smooth muscle cells that constrict them (Nitric Oxide. 2015). Though research has found both arginine and citrulline to boost levels of nitric oxide (NO) in the body, most recent research—like this The Journal of Nutrition study—shows that citrulline actually delivers the most benefit. The body use arginine for a variety of functions, so it doesn’t use all of the arginine it absorbs to produce NO. Plus, unlike citrulline, higher doses of arginine have been linked to gastrointestinal problems. Because it tends to be poorly absorbed, arginine can even lead to diarrhea when consumed in large amounts.
Olive leaf extract is a natural source of wellness with therapeutic properties that are:
- gastroprotective (protects digestive system)
- neuroprotective (protects central nervous system)
- antimicrobial (inhibits microorganism growth)
- anticancer (reduces risk of cancer)
- anti-inflammatory (reduces risk of inflammation)
- antinociceptive (reduces pain stimuli)
- antioxidant (prevents oxidation or cell damage)
Whey is the liquid separated from the curds during the cheese making process. Products derived from whey have demonstrated immune-modulating properties (Krissansen 2007; Rusu 2009). Whey protein is especially rich in precursor amino acids involved in the synthesis of glutathione, a powerful free radical scavenger with anti-inflammatory properties. Glutathione is essential for both innate and adaptive immunity (Krissansen 2007; Kloek 2011; Kent 2003; Micke 2001). (N-acetylcysteine, described earlier, is also a glutathione precursor.)
A pilot study compared the effects of whey protein and soy protein on vaccine responsiveness in 17 healthy senior citizens (Freeman 2010). The participants were randomly assigned to consume either whey protein or soy protein for four weeks. They then received the pneumococcal vaccine and continued protein supplementation for four weeks after vaccination. Compared with those who received soy protein, people who received whey protein exhibited a more robust antibody response to 12 of 14 types of pneumococcal bacteria, including the four most harmful bacterial types. The investigators concluded, “ Whey protein supplementation is a promising supplement to stimulate the immune response to vaccine in senior citizens and possibly to counteract [immune senescence] while larger studies are warranted.”
In another clinical trial in 12 healthy volunteers, a single dose of a whey extract was a more effective immune activator than placebo, rapidly increasing phagocytic (microbe-engulfing) activity of certain immune cells and mobilizing new NK cells into circulation (Jensen 2012). In a study in cultured neutrophils, whey protein extract had no immediate effect but instead had a priming effect, heightening neutrophil activity 24 hours later (Rusu 2009).
Hormone Replacement Therapy
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for women has been a topic of much debate in recent decades. This is due largely to the fact that the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) study in 2002 was halted prematurely because of a reported increase in the instance of breast cancer in women participating in the hormone replacement arm of the study. Thereafter, thousands of women were taken off or stopped taking HRT unnecessarily, despite the fact that many studies have debunked the WHI conclusions.
HRT & Breast Cancer: What’s the Connection?
One of the major flaws of the WHI was the confusion and fear it spread by projecting its results to all women receiving HRT. In the original study, more women who took estrogen plus progestin (E+P) developed breast cancer than those taking placebos.
Further research published in a 2013 article in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism shows that breast cancer rates were actually found to decrease significantly with estrogen alone. Moreover, the article goes on to say that even though there isn’t a significant increase with E+P used together versus estrogen alone, for illustrative purposes, any increased risk of breast cancer associated with E+P originally publicized with the WHI trial is less than the risk conferred by obesity, being a flight attendant, and many other common exposures.
Another noteworthy difference which can play a role in breast cancer risk is the use of synthetic progestins versus bioidentical progesterone. Synthetic progestins, which were used in the WHI, are hormones which are synthetically produced, and thus different in structure from bioidentical progesterone. Bioidentical progesterone, while produced from a plant source, is structurally and chemically identical to the progesterone produced by the ovaries. Synthetic progestins mimic some effects of the natural hormone, but react differently with progesterone receptors within the body and are felt to be responsible for the increase in breast cancer seen in WHI. On the other hand, bioidentical progesterone does not increase, and may actually reduce the risk of breast cancer.
In the United States, colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men and in women, and the second most common cause of cancer deaths when men and women are combined. It's expected to cause about 52,980 deaths during 2021, according to the American Cancer Society.
Two randomized controlled trials addressed some of the issues with WHIMS by enrolling women closer to the onset of menopause and examining synthetic versus bioidentical hormones. The KEEPS trial included 662 women with an average age of 52.6 years. It found that neither type of hormone benefited cognitive function (KEEPS 2015), though in women who carried the APOE4 gene, bioidentical hormones were associated with lower levels of beta-amyloid plaques (i.e., a hallmark of Alzheimer's) in the brain compared with synthetic hormones or placebo (J Alzheimers Dis 2016). The ELITE trial compared healthy women within 6 years versus those over 10 years after menopause taking bioidentical hormones. It also found no evidence of cognitive benefit or harm in either group (Neurology 2016). These studies only lasted four to five years, which isn't long enough to assess Alzheimer's risk.
Testosterone injections are most often given by your doctor. The injection site is typically in the gluteal muscles in the buttocks.
TRT is an acronym for testosterone replacement therapy, sometimes called androgen replacement therapy. It’s primarily used to treat low testosterone (T) levels, which can occur with age or as a result of a medical condition.
But it’s becoming increasingly popular for non-medical uses, including:
- enhancing sexual performance
- achieving higher energy levels
- building muscle mass for bodybuilding
This is all part of a completely natural process that starts in your late 20s or early 30s.
This gradual decrease in Testosterone often doesn’t cause any noticeable symptoms. But a significant drop in T levels may cause:
- low sex drive
- fewer spontaneous erections
- erectile dysfunction
- lowered sperm count or volume
- trouble sleeping
- unusual loss of muscle and bone density
- unexplained weight gain
A clinical trial in men with an average age of 63 and low serum DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S) levels found that DHEA status was rapidly corrected with oral supplementation. Compared with placebo, DHEA treatment resulted in improved immune parameters, including monocyte levels, B- and T-cell function, and NK-cell levels (Khorram 1997). In a small observational study of 38 participants, salivary DHEA levels were positively correlated with salivary bactericidal activity, a measure of innate immune function (Prall 2015). Another observational study noted an association between low levels of DHEA and high levels of IL-6, an inflammatory cytokine implicated in immune senescence. Furthermore, DHEA inhibited IL-6 production by immune cells taken from study participants (Straub 1998; Varadhan 2014). According to a study in aged mice, DHEA may also enhance the immune response to influenza vaccine (Danenberg 1995).
DHEA plays a critical role by serving as a counterweight to cortisol. Cortisol is an adrenal hormone with immunosuppressive properties, while DHEA may have direct immunostimulating properties: in a laboratory study of white blood cells from donors who were at least 65 years old, DHEA treatment reversed the age-related reduction of specific receptors on immune cells and increased immune cell responsiveness (Corsini 2005). Although DHEA levels decline dramatically with age, cortisol levels remain relatively constant, leading to an imbalance of these two hormones that is believed to contribute to immune senescence (Buford 2008; Buoso 2011).
Stem Cell Therapy for Anti-Aging
Despite the fact that there are many published studies on stem cell therapy for anti-aging, major media has been slow to report the findings.
The results of 2 clinical studies, published in The Journals of Gerontology, showed how a type of adult stem cell called mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could reverse the effects of aging.
The first trial involved 15 frail patients, each received single MSC infusion of stem cells collected from adult bone marrow donors aged between 20 and 45 years old. The patients exhibited improved overall quality of life and fitness, as well as diminished tumor necrosis factor levels. The second trial was a double-blind, randomized study involving a placebo group. Aside from noting no adverse effects, the research team found the improvements to be “remarkable.”
- Yu Y. Application of Stem Cell Technology in Antiaging and Aging-Related Diseases. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2018;1086:255-265
- Ivonne Hernandez Schulman, Wayne Balkan and Joshua M. Hare. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Aging Frailty. Front Nutr. 2018; 5: 108.
- Juan Antonio Fafián-Labora, Miriam Morente-López, and María C Arufe. Effect of aging on behaviour of mesenchymal stem cells. World J Stem Cells. 2019 Jun 26; 11(6): 337–346.
Online Shopping Guide
Before adding a new supplement to your routine, discuss its use with your healthcare provider, especially if you have an underlying health condition or are taking medication.
While many of the anti-aging supplements may be available in your local stores, it may be more convenient or affordable to shop for them online on Amazon (US):